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FAQ

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1. How long will the ZeenKleen Process take to neutralize Hydrazine?

2. What is the biological information for the ZeenKleen and Product?

3. How much ZeenKleen must be used to achieve neutralization?

4. How much ZeenKleen Product is produced when neutralizing 1000 ppm of hydrazine?

1. How long will the ZeenKleen Process take to neutralize Hydrazine?

Time Study, Hz/ZeenKleen reaction:

Initial Conc Eq ZeenKleen   Time Concentration Temp
1000 ppm  0  0  1000 ppm   22 °C 
1000 ppm  1.2  2 h  48 ppm   22 °C 
1000 ppm  1.2  5.5 h  10 ppm   22 °C 
1000 ppm  1.2  7 h  7 ppm   22 °C 
1000 ppm  1.2  24 h  Low ppm  22 °C 
50 ppm  0  0  50 ppm  22 °C 
50 ppm  1.2  2 h  34 ppm  22 °C 
50 ppm  1.2  5.5 h  21 ppm  22 °C 
50 ppm  1.2  7 h   19 ppm  22 °C 
50 ppm  1.2  24 h  Low ppm  22 °C 

2. What is the biological information for the ZeenKleen and Product?

The use of isotopically enriched compounds has been used extensively to study the metabolic and biological fate of a variety of compounds.  Isotopically labeled ZeenKleen was used to study the fate of the reaction between ZeenKleen and hydrazine.  The use of isotopically labeled ZeenKleen allowed for the absolute identification of the products formed in the reaction of Hz using 13 C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).

Excerpted From "A Guide for Assessing Biodegradation and Source Identification of Organic Ground Water Contaminants using Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA)1"

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that data quality objectives be developed for the methods and procedures that are used to characterize hazardous waste sites. The U.S. EPA also requires that the data that are used to make decisions must meet predetermined goals for data quality, including the accuracy, precision, and sensitivity of the measurement, and the extent to which the sample submitted for analysis are representative of the environmental medium being sampled. Other regulatory agencies world-wide have similar expectations. Because Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) is a new approach in environmental investigations, there are now widely accepted standards for accuracy, precision and sensitivity, and no established approaches to document accuracy, precision, sensitivity and representativeness.

To determine the need for active remediation, it is useful to have a good knowledge of the behavior of the contaminants in soil and ground water, including the extent of biodegradation and abiotic transformation. This is especially important for passive remedies such as Monitored Natural Attenuation that use naturally occurring processes to attenuate concentrations of contaminants2. Although natural attenuation has been the focus of many remediation investigations due to its expected economic benefits, it is often difficult to unequivocally prove that a contaminant is being transformed in ground water and that the extent of attenuation is sufficient to protect receptors that are down gradient of the source. The standard approach that is usually taken to characterize degradation in the field is to monitor the concentrations of the contaminant at selected wells and use mass balance calculations to estimate the extent of degradation. This approach has many shortcomings, and the shortcomings are particularly severe for common ground water pollutants that degrade slowly. The conventional approach requires a dense network of monitoring wells, monitoring that extends for long periods of time, and a rather homogeneous aquifer with well-understood hydrogeology. These requirements are rarely met at real sites, and even when they are, the evidence of degradation is only provided indirectly through a calculation of the missing mass of the contaminant after accounting for all the other processes that might reduce the concentration of the contaminant. These shortcomings have been nicely illustrated in a study of the natural biodegradation of methyl tertiary butyl ether in ground water at the Borden site in Canada3.

There are several new techniques to study biodegradation in ground water that involve the addition of contaminants that are artificially labeled with a carbon isotope (usually 13C-labeled). Examples include stable isotope probing (SIP) and Bio-Sep® beads amended with 13C-labeled substrates. These techniques work in much the same way as radiocarbon labeling; the 13C-labeled is used to track the transfer of carbon from the substrate to its metabolites, or to the DIC pool, and its subsequent incorporation into the microbial biomass4,5. The disappearance of the label from the substrate pool is convincing evidence that the targeted compound is indeed degrading, and the identification of 13C-labeled in microbial biomass is definitive proof that the compound was biologically degraded.

The only two compounds in the reaction are the [13C5,15N2]ZeenKleen product and [13C5]ZeenKleen. The use of the isotopes for this project allows one to see that the reaction produces only the product and there is zero evidence for a salt formation. This serves as definitive proof that there are no side products or additional products formed in this reaction.

With that in mind, two toxicity tests6,7 were performed to determine the toxicity of ZeenKleen and the ZeenKleen Product.

The four test species used in the bioassays6 are:

Ceriodaphnia dubia ( common name: water flea – freshwater species)
Cyprinella leedsi (common name: Bannerfin Shiner – freshwater species)
Mysidopsis bahia (common name: Mysid Shrimp – saltwater species)
Menidia beryllina (common name: Silverside Minnow – saltwater species)


The toxicity tests were performed on the following species:

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The ZeenKleen Product and ZeenKleen were determined to have an LC50 of greater than 1.5 g/liter or 1500 ppm7.

References

  1. Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Ada, Oklahoma 74820. A Guide for Assessing Biodegradation and Source Identification of Organic Ground Water Contaminants using Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) EPA 600/R-08/148 | December (2008) | www.epa.gov/ada
  2. Wiedemeier, T. H., H. S. Rifai, C. J. Newell and?J. T. Wilson. Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, 1999, 617 pages.
  3. Schirmer, M. and J. F. Barker. A study of long- term MTBE attenuation in the Borden aquifer, Ontario, Canada. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 18: 113-122 (1998).
  4. Geyer, R., A. D. Peacock, A. Miltner, H. H. Richnow, D. C. White, K. L. Sublette and M. Kästner. In situ assessment of biodegradation potential using biotraps amended with C-13- labeled benzene or toluene. Environmental Science and Technology 39: 4983-4989 (2005).
  5. Stelzer, N., C. Büning, F. Pfeifer, A. B. Dohrmann, C. C. Tebbe, I. Nijenhuis, M. Kästner and H.?H. Richnow. In situ microcosms to evaluate natural attenuation potentials in contaminated aquifers. Organic Geochemistry 37: 1394-1410 (2006).
  6. Khan-Mayberry, N. N. Acute Aquatic Toxicity- AKGA, NASA, (2010).
  7. Yestrebsky, C. and Rueda, J. Acute Toxicity Testing on Fish and Crustaceans, presented at University of Central Florida, December 12, (2012).
3. How much ZeenKleen must be used to achieve neutralization?

800 ppm Hydrazine Time Study, 1.2, 1.5, 1.75, and 2.0 eq ZeenKleen

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4. How much ZeenKleen Product is produced when neutralizing 1000 ppm of hydrazine?

For the neutralization of 1000 ppm Hz, 4434 ppm of ZeenKleen Product is produced.

The biological test show that 1500 ppm of ZeenKleen Product and ZeenKleen does not harm the wildlife tested.

Example of use:

A tank that contains up to 1000 ppm of Hz will be treated using the ZeenKleen Process. This tank will then be drained (when Hz is below 20 ppm) into the Discharge Monitor Tank (DMT) which totals 100,000 gallons of water. This will take the effective concentration of the ZeenKleen Product from 4434 ppm to 785 ppm. This is well below the LC50 of 1500 ppm for ZeenKleen Product.

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Company Information

Hydrazine Neutralizing Solutions, Inc.
www.4ZeenKleen.com
PO Box 683156
Marietta, GA 30068
PH (770) 928-3800
Toll Free (855) 767-6161
Fax (770) 928-3799
Accept Credit Cards